China and the European Union in Africa : partners or competitors?

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Others are as fatalistic, but surrender in advance and organise the great sell-out. Everything is sold to China, from ports and airports to electricity grids, until one day they realises that they have abandoned their sovereignty into the bargain. And yet a nuanced China strategy is possible. Decisions have been taken to translate this view into practical policies, at three levels. First, the EU is strengthening its home base, by safeguarding its decision-making against undue influence by outside powers. A new screening mechanism obliges Member States to report foreign investment in critical sectors to the European Commission for advice.

That allows the Member States that want to, to limit foreign ownership in sensitive areas. Ideally therefore, the screening mechanism would be but the first step towards a compulsory EU-wide regime, which could then also be applied to candidates for EU membership. Second, the EU adopted a strategy to promote its connectivity with the countries of Asia.

The aim is not to limit Chinese trade and investment, for of course the EU itself has deep economic ties with China. The purpose is to convince other countries that they have a strong interest in also building a deep trade and investment relationship with the EU and, therefore, in maintaining an open and transparent economy. Retrieved September 10, Archived from the original on January 16, Office of the United States Trade Representative.

Beef Exports To EU". Retrieved August 2, European Commission. BBC News. March 9, Retrieved May 2, The Guardian. Retrieved June 30, The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved July 1, Retrieved September 5, Canada-United States Trade Center. November 28, November 18, November 15, June 15, Archived from the original on January 12, March 27, Retrieved September 5, — via YouTube.

The Independent. Archived from the original on October 26, Retrieved October 5, July 26, Newsweek, 31 July European Voice. January 14, March 5, April 11, Retrieved December 9, EU Open House. Archived from the original PDF on September 8, US Mission to the European Union.

United States Department of State. Retrieved March 14, United States Mission to the European Union. Archived from the original on December 6, US Department of State. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved May 29, The New York Times. July 15, The Washington Post. July 19, Retrieved July 19, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy. International Politics. Foreign relations of the United States. Bilateral relations. Algeria Egypt Libya Morocco Tunisia. Kitts and Nevis St.


Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago. Bermuda Canada trade relations Mexico. New Zealand Samoa Tonga Tuvalu. Multilateral relations. Doctrines, policies , concepts. Foreign relations of the European Union. See also : Economic relationships with third countries. Australia New Zealand. Overseas territories of member states European microstates Largest trading partners Association Agreements Free trade agreements.

Multilateral relations and initiatives. Administration and policies. Directorate-General for Defence Industry and Space. Defence forces of the European Union.

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Denmark Malta United Kingdom. China welcomes a united, stable, open and prosperous Europe, supports the European integration process, and remains committed to developing ties with EU institutions, member states and other European countries in a comprehensive, balanced and mutually reinforcing manner. Based on common interests and needs, China and the Central and Eastern European countries have conducted win-win, open and transparent cross-regional cooperation.

The support and constructive participation by the EU and other parties are welcomed. China will continue to step up high-level exchanges with the EU and EU member states, fully leverage the role of the China-EU Summit in providing strategic guidance to China-EU relations, further implement the China-EU Strategic Agenda for Cooperation the two sides jointly formulated in and discuss follow-up plans, and reinforce inter-governmental exchanges and dialogues at various levels. Exchanges on an equal footing and mutual learning should be enhanced between our legislatures, political parties, localities and social groups.

China and the EU should expand practical cooperation in various fields and engage in third party cooperation. These exchanges and cooperation will help the two sides draw on each other's strengths, embrace sound interactions and achieve common development. As an important global public good from China, the Belt and Road Initiative follows the principle of consultation and cooperation for shared benefits, upholds openness, inclusiveness and transparency, observes international rules and market principles, and pursues high quality and high standards tailored to local conditions.

China welcomes the active participation of the EU and other European countries in a joint effort to build a road that promotes peace, prosperity, openness and innovation, connects civilizations, facilitates green development, and upholds high ethical standards. Honoring the commitment to respecting China's sovereignty and territorial integrity, upholding the one China principle with concrete actions, and respecting China's core interests and major concerns bear on the long-term stability and growth of China-EU relations.

The EU should explicitly oppose "Taiwan independence" in any form, support China's peaceful reunification, and handle Taiwan-related issues with prudence. Exchanges between the EU and Taiwan should be strictly limited to nonofficial and people-to-people activities, and there should be no official contact or exchanges in any form.

The EU should refrain from signing with Taiwan any agreement with sovereign implications or official in nature. No institutions of an official nature should be established. The EU should not endorse Taiwan's membership in any international organization where statehood is required, not sell Taiwan any weapons or any equipment, materials or technologies that can be used for military purposes, and not carry out military exchanges or cooperation in any form. The central government of China supports and encourages the governments of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Macao Special Administrative Region in developing mutually beneficial and friendly cooperation in such areas as economy, trade, culture and tourism with the EU and its member states in accordance with the principle of "one country, two systems" and provisions of the two Basic Laws.

Given that Hong Kong and Macao are China's special administrative regions, their affairs are part of China's internal affairs and should not be interfered in by the EU side. China appreciates the position of the EU and its member states that recognizes Tibet as an integral part of China's territory and does not support "Tibet independence". The EU should not allow leaders of the Dalai group to visit the EU or its member states in any capacity or under any name to carry out separatist activities, not arrange any form of contact with officials from the EU and its member states, and not support or facilitate any anti-China separatist activities for "Tibet independence".

It is also imperative that the EU side not support or facilitate the East Turkestan Islamic Movement and any other activity of anti-China separatism, violent terrorism and religious extremism. Despite differences in history, culture, social systems and development stages, China and the EU have no fundamental strategic conflicts but share much more common ground than differences.

It is important that the two sides engage in dialogues instead of confrontation, enhance mutual understanding and trust through equal consultation, build as much consensus as possible, accommodate each other's legitimate concerns, and handle disputes and frictions in a constructive way. China is ready to work with the EU to strengthen dialogue and coordination at bilateral, regional and global levels, promote and practise multilateralism, uphold the UN-centered international order and system, and tackle global challenges.

China and the EU need to stand firmly against unilateralism and protectionism, push for a more open, inclusive and balanced economic globalization beneficial to all, and support the international community in formulating and improving fair, equitable and just international rules and standards to ensure that all parties engage in decision making as equals, enjoy their legitimate rights, and shoulder responsibilities and obligations commensurate with their levels of development.

Fully leverage the China-EU High Level Strategic Dialogue as a major platform to deepen strategic communication and coordination, build strategic consensus and deepen mutual trust.

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Continue to hold the China-EU consultations on foreign policies and dialogues on regional affairs to facilitate political solutions to regional and international hotspot issues. Enhance exchange, coordination and cooperation under the UN framework to support the UN in playing an active role and explore joint initiatives and actions on issues of common interest and with common ground between China and the EU and its member states.

Jointly support the reform of the UN to strengthen its role and improve its efficiency. Increase exchange and practical cooperation on UN peacekeeping.

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Intensify counter-terrorism communication and collaboration on the basis of mutual respect and equality, and firmly reject double standards for fresh progress in international counter-terrorism cooperation. Enhance cooperation between police forces.

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China stands ready to expand exchanges and cooperation with Europol and launch joint patrols with EU member states as appropriate. Strengthen communication and cooperation on public legal services, and extradition and criminal judicial assistance for more practical and effective joint combat against transnational crimes. Increase communication and cooperation on non-proliferation and export control. Jointly advance international nuclear security cooperation.

Prevent weaponization of and arms race in outer space and safeguard its peace and security.

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Uphold the authority and universality of the multilateral disarmament regime. Jointly preserve the authority of the Non-Proliferation Treaty as the cornerstone of the international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament regime, and support global efforts to ban nuclear tests. Support the Conference on Disarmament in adopting a comprehensive and balanced work program at an early date and carrying out substantive work.

Make good use of the China-EU Cyber Taskforce, jointly advocate a community with a shared future in cyberspace, promote norms for responsible State behavior in cyberspace under the UN framework, and advance the reform of the global internet governance system for a peaceful, secure, open, cooperative and orderly cyberspace.

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Maintain high-level exchanges between defense authorities, enhance communication and cooperation through the dialogue mechanism on security policies. Actively expand personnel training and exchange programs, joint exercises, and cooperation in such non-traditional security fields as humanitarian rescue and assistance, peacekeeping and escort missions.

Deepen dialogue and cooperation under the ASEM framework, and advance ASEM reform on the basis of mutual respect, equality, mutual benefit and consensus-building with a focus on practical outcomes for ASEM to play its unique role in the global governance system. Give full play to the guiding role of the China-EU High Level Economic Dialogue, deepen dialogues on macroeconomic, economic and trade policies, enhance mutual understanding and proper reading of and seek greater synergy between each other's policies and regulations, unlock cooperation potential, handle disagreements and frictions in a constructive manner, avoid politicizing economic and trade issues, and ensure the sustained, steady and win-win progress of China-EU economic and trade relations.

Make joint efforts with a positive and pragmatic attitude to reach a win-win bilateral investment treaty, and launch a joint feasibility study on China-EU Free Trade Area at an early date to build a sound institutional framework for upgrading the economic and trade cooperation. admin